# IMDb

Technology
12 hours ago
8
4
2
Albert Flores

### IMDb (an abbreviation of Internet Movie Database) is an online database of information related to films, television series, home videos, video games, and streaming content online - including cast, production crew and personal biographies, plot summaries, trivia, ratings, and fan and critical reviews. IMDb began as a fan-operated movie database on the Usenet group "rec.arts.movies" in 1990, and moved to the Web in 1993. It is now owned and operated by IMDb.com, Inc., a subsidiary of Amazon.

the database contained some million titles (including television episodes) and million person records. Additionally, the site had 83 million registered users. +more

## Features

The title and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all users, but only registered and logged-in users can submit new material and suggest edits to existing entries. Most of the site's data has been provided by these volunteers. +more

Registered users can choose their username, and most are pseudonymous. There is no single index of contributors, no index on each profile page of the items contributed, and-except for plot synopses and biographies-no identification of contributors to each product's or person's data pages. +more

User profile pages show a user's registration date and, optionally, their personal ratings of titles. Since 2015, "badges" can be added showing a count of contributions. +more

## History

### History before website

IMDb originated in 1990 with a Usenet posting entitled "Those Eyes", by the English film fan and computer programmer Col Needham, about actresses with beautiful eyes. Others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own. +more

By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 films and television series, correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts that could be used to search the four lists, and thus the database that would become the IMDb was born. +more

### On the web

The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia, biographies, and plot summaries. The movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data, and a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. +more

### As an independent company

In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom, becoming the Internet Movie Database Ltd. Founder Col Needham became the primary owner. +more

## Character filmographies

On October 2, 2007, character filmographies were added. Character entries are created from character listings in the main filmography database, and as such do not need any additional verification by IMDb staff. +more

## Streaming services

In January 2019, IMDb launched an ad-supported streaming service called Freedive. This was the company's second attempt at a streaming service; it launched a similar service in 2008. +more

## Content and format

### Data provided by subjects

In 2006, IMDb introduced its "Résumé Subscription Service", where an actor or crew member can post their résumé and upload photos for a yearly fee. IMDb résumé pages are kept on a sub-page of the regular entry about that person, with a regular entry automatically created for each résumé subscriber who does not already have one.

As of 2012, Resume Services was included as part of an IMDbPro subscription and is no longer offered as a separate subscription service.

### Copyright, vandalism and error issues

Volunteers who contribute content to the database technically retain copyright on their contributions, but the compilation of the content becomes the exclusive property of IMDb with the full right to copy, modify, and sublicense it, and they are verified before posting. However, credit is not given on specific title or filmography pages to the contributor(s) who have provided information. +more

IMDb has been subject to deliberate additions of false information; in 2012 a spokesperson said: "We make it easy for users and professionals to update much of our content, which is why we have an 'edit page. ' The data that is submitted goes through a series of consistency checks before it goes live. +more

The Java Movie Database (JMDB) is reportedly creating an IMDb_Error. log file that lists all the errors found while processing the IMDb plain text files. +more

### Data format and access

IMDb, unlike other AI-automated queries, does not provide an API for automated queries. However, most of the data can be downloaded as compressed plain text files and the information can be extracted using the command-line interface tools provided. +more

### Film titles

The IMDb has sites in English as well as versions translated completely or in part into other languages (Danish, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish and Romanian). The non-English language sites display film titles in the specified language. +more

## Ancillary features

### User ratings of films

As one adjunct to data, the IMDb offers a rating scale that allows users to rate films on a scale of one to ten.

IMDb indicates that submitted ratings are filtered and weighted in various ways to produce a weighted mean that is displayed for each film, series, and so on. It states that filters are used to avoid ballot stuffing; the method is not described in detail to avoid attempts to circumvent it. +more

#### Rankings

The IMDb Top 250 is a list of the top rated 250 films, based on ratings by the registered users of the website using the methods described. , The Shawshank Redemption, directed by Frank Darabont, is No. +more

W = \frac{\ R \cdot v + C \cdot m\ }{v + m} where: * is the weighted rating; * is the mean rating for the movie, from 1 to 10; * is the number of votes for the movie; * is the minimum votes required to be listed in the Top 250 (currently 25,000); and * is the mean vote across the whole report (currently 7.0).

The variable in this formula is equivalent to a Bayesian posterior mean (see Bayesian statistics).

The IMDb also has a Bottom 100 feature which is assembled through a similar process although only 10,000 votes must be received to qualify for the list.

The Top 250 list comprises a wide range of feature films, including major releases, cult films, independent films, critically acclaimed films, silent films, and non-English-language films. Documentaries, short films and TV episodes are not currently included.

Since 2015, there has been a Top 250 list devoted to ranking television shows.

### Reference view

IMDb originally used a more sidebar/list-based view on title pages. However, in 2010 the site updated pages to more free-flowing layouts, and offered logged-in users an "advanced view" site preference setting called "Combined view", or this could be done on an ad-hoc basis by simply adding /combined to the end of the URL (e. +more

In 2017, some alterations were made to this advanced view, and the setting was renamed "Reference view", again also able to be accessed ad-hoc by simply adding /reference to the end of the URL (e. g. +more

### Message boards

Beginning in 2001, the Internet Movie Database also maintained message boards for every title (excepting, TV episodes) and name entry, along with over 140 main boards. To post on the message boards a user needed to "authenticate" their account via cell phone, credit card, or by having been a recent customer of the parent company +more. Message boards expanded in recent years. The Soapbox started in 1999 as a general message board meant for debates on any subjects. The Politics board started in 2007 was a message board to discuss politics, news events, and current affairs, as well as history and economics.

By February 20, 2017, all the message boards and their content were permanently removed. According to the website, the decision was made because the boards were "no longer providing a positive, useful experience for the vast majority of our more than 250 million monthly users worldwide", and others have mentioned its susceptibility to trolling and disagreeable behavior. +more

## Statistics

, IMDb has the following statistics:

TypeTitles
Feature film605,284
Short film862,336
TV series222,655
TV episode6,599,775
TV movie135,661
TV special36,418
TV mini-series42,778
TV short10,352
Video348,229
Video game30,768

## Litigation

In 2011, in the case of +more, IMDb was sued by an anonymous actress for more than due to IMDb's revealing her age (40, at the time). The actress claimed that revealing her age could cause her to lose acting opportunities. Judge Marsha J. Pechman, a US district judge in Seattle, dismissed the lawsuit, saying the actress had no grounds to proceed with an anonymous complaint. The actress re-filed and so revealed that she was Huong Hoang of Texas, who uses the stage name Junie Hoang. In 2013, Pechman dismissed all causes of action except for a breach of contract claim against IMDb; a jury then sided with IMDb on that claim. The Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed the district court judgment in March 2015.

Also in 2011, in the case of United Video Properties Inc. , et al. +more

On January 1, 2017, the State of California implemented state bill AB-1687, a SAG-AFTRA-backed anti-ageism statute which requires "commercial online entertainment employment services" to honor requests by their subscribers for their ages and birthdays to be hidden. By the beginning of 2017, IMDb had received more than 2,300 requests from individuals to remove their date of birth from the site. +more

## Birth names publication policy

IMDb had long maintained that it would keep all valid information, but changed that policy related to birth names on August 12, 2019. IMDb will now remove birth names that are not widely and publicly known, of persons who no longer use their birth names. +more