The Japan Meteorological Agency (気象庁), abbreviated JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. +more Its headquarters is located in Minato, Tokyo.

JMA is responsible for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts for the general public, as well as providing aviation and marine weather. JMA other responsibilities include issuing warnings for volcanic eruptions, and the nationwide issuance of earthquake warnings of the Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system. +more JMA is also designated one of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It is responsible for forecasting, naming, and distributing warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northwestern Pacific region, including the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea, the South China Sea, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk.

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History

August 26, 1872 - The first weather station in Japan set up in Hakodate, Hokkaido. It is the precursor of the present Hakodate Weather Station (函館海洋気象台). +more * June 1875 - The original Tokyo Meteorological Observatory (東京気象台) was formed within the Survey Division of Geography Bureau of Home Ministry (Japan) (Home Ministry). * January 1, 1887 - The Tokyo Meteorological Observatory was renamed as the Central Meteorological Observatory (中央気象台), with the transfer of its jurisdiction to the Home Ministry. * April 1895 - The Ministry of Education (文部省) replaced the preceding ministry as an administrator of the Observatory. * January 1, 1923 - The main office moved to Motoe-machi, Kōjimachi-ku (later Takehira-chō 1), where it is near a moat surrounding the Imperial Palace. * November 1943 - The Ministry of Transport and Communications (運輸通信省) took over the CMO's operation. * May 1945 - It became part of the Ministry of Transport (運輸省). * July 1, 1956 - The Central Meteorological Observatory became an agency of the Ministry of Transport, and has been renamed to the Japan Meteorological Agency (気象庁). * March 1964 - The headquarters office was relocated to the present building in Ōtemachi, Chiyoda-ku. * January 6, 2001 - The JMA becomes an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (国土交通省) with the Japanese government reformation. * 2013 - It has been announced that it would be scheduled to move the headquarters into Toranomon, Minato-ku. * November 24, 2020 - JMA moved to the new headquarters in Toranomon.

Services

Overview

The JMA is responsible not only for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts in Japan, but also for observation and warning of earthquakes, tsunamis, typhoons and volcanic eruptions.

The agency has six regional administrative offices (including five DMOs and Okinawa Meteorological Observatory), four Marine Observatories, five auxiliary facilities, four Aviation Weather Service Centers and 47 local offices composed of the LMOs. These are also used to gather data, supplemented by weather satellites such as Himawari, and other research institutes.

In 1968, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) designated the JMA as a Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) for Asia. In June 1988, the WMO also assigned the JMA as a RSMC for the Northwestern Pacific under its Tropical Cyclone programme. +more In July 1989, the RSMC Tokyo - Typhoon Center was established within the headquarters office, which dealt with the forecasting and dissemination of active tropical cyclones, as well as preparing a summary of each year's cyclone activity.

Observation and forecast

Earthquakes

The JMA has its own 624 observation stations across the country that set up at intervals of 20 km approximately in order to measure seismic intensity of earthquakes precisely. The agency also utilize about 2,900 more seismographs owned by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) and local governments. +more A 24-hour office has been housed within the JMA headquarters in Tokyo, for monitoring and tracking seismic events in the vicinity of Japan to collect and process their data, which issues observed earthquake's information on its hypocenter, magnitude, seismic intensity and possibility of tsunami occurrence after quakes quickly to the public through the Earthquake Phenomena Observation System (EPOS). The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system began to work fully for the general public on October 1, 2007.

The agency is one of the representatives of the national Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction.

Tsunamis

It is essential to provide coastal regions for tsunami information so that its catastrophic damages can be reduced and mitigated there. In case of there is a possibility of tsunami after an earthquake, JMA issues Tsunami Warning or Advisory for each region in Japan with information of estimated tsunami heights and arrival times within 2 to 3 minutes of the quake.

Volcanoes

The agency set up four Volcanic Observations and Information Centers within DMOs in Sapporo, Sendai, Tokyo and Fukuoka. They are monitoring volcanic events on 110 active volcanos in Japan and 47 of these volcanos selected by the Coordinating Committee for Prediction of Volcanic Eruption are under 24-hour observation with seismographs, accelerometers, GPS, air-shock recorders, fixed point observation cameras and other equipment. +more If it is predicted that a volcanic eruption will affect inhabited areas or around a crater, Volcanic Warnings are issued and supplemented by Volcanic Alert Levels.

Organization

Headquarters

JMA Headquarters (気象庁本庁) *Director-General (長官) *Deputy Director-General (次長) *Deputy Director-General for Disaster Mitigation (気象防災監) **Administration Department (総務部) ***Counselors (参事官) **Information Infrastructure Department (情報基盤部) **Atmosphere and Ocean Department (大気海洋部) **Seismology and Volcanology Department (地震火山部)

Local offices

Local Offices (地方支分部局) ** 6 Regional Headquarters *** Sapporo Regional Headquarters (札幌管区気象台) **** 6 Local Meteorological Observatory (Local Meteorological Observatories) **** 1 Weather Station (測候所) **** 1 Aviation Weather Station (航空測候所) *** Sendai Regional Headquarters (仙台管区気象台) **** 5 Local Meteorological Observatory (Local Meteorological Observatories) **** 1 Aviation Weather Station (航空測候所) *** Tokyo District Meteorological Observatory (Tokyo Regional Headquarters) **** 16 Local Meteorological Observatory (Local Meteorological Observatories) **** 3 Aviation Weather Service Centers (航空地方気象台) *** Osaka Regional Headquarters (大阪管区気象台) **** 13 Local Meteorological Observatory (Local Meteorological Observatories) **** 1 Aviation Weather Service Center (航空地方気象台) *** Fukuoka Regional Headquarters (福岡管区気象台) **** 7 Local Meteorological Observatory (Local Meteorological Observatories) **** 1 Weather Station (測候所) **** 1 Aviation Weather Service Center (航空地方気象台) *** Okinawa Meteorological Observatory (Okinawa Regional Headquarters) **** 3 Local Meteorological Observatory (Local Meteorological Observatories) **** 1 Aviation Weather Station (航空測候所)

Auxiliary organs

Affiliated institution (Auxiliary Organs) **Meteorological Research Institute (気象研究所) **Meteorological Satellite Center (気象衛星センター) **Aerological Observatory (高層気象台) **Magnetic Observatory (地磁気観測所) **Meteorological College (気象大学校)

Directors-General and Chief Executives

Chief Executives of Central Meteorological Observatory

# (荒井 郁之助): 1890-1891 # (小林 一知): 1891-1895 # (中村 精男): 1895-1923 # (岡田 武松): 1923-1941 # (藤原 咲平): 1941-1947 # (和達 清夫): 1947-1956

Directors-General of JMA

# (和達 清夫): 1956-1963 # (畠山 久尚): 1963-1965 # (柴田 淑次): 1965-1969 # (吉武 素二): 1969-1971 # (高橋 浩一郎): 1971-1974 # (毛利 圭太郎): 1974-1976 # (有住 直介): 1976-1978 # (窪田 正八): 1978-1980 # (増澤 譲太郎): 1980-1983 # (末廣 重二): 1983-1985 # (内田 英治): 1985-1987 # (菊地 幸雄): 1987-1990 # (立平 良三): 1990-1992 # (新田 尚): 1992-1993 # (二宮 洸三): 1993-1996 # (小野 俊行): 1996-1998 # (瀧川 雄壮): 1998-2000 # (山本 孝二): 2000-2003 # (北出 武夫): 2003-2004 # (長坂 昴一): 2004-2006 # (平木 哲): 2006-2009 # (櫻井 邦雄): 2009-2011 # (羽鳥 光彦): 2011-2014 # (西出 則武): 2014-2016 # (橋田 俊彦): 2016-2019 # (関田 康雄): 2019-2021 # (長谷川直之): 2021-present