The Japanese military aircraft designation systems for the Imperial period (pre-1945) had multiple designation systems for each armed service. This led to the Allies' use of code names during World War II, and these code names are still better known in English-language texts than the real Japanese names for the aircraft. +more A number of different schemes were simultaneously in use.

Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service (大日本帝國海軍航空隊) used several different aircraft designation systems simultaneously. Between 1931 and 1945, aircraft had Shi numbers designating the specification they were designed to. +more They also had a long form of Type and Model Number system used between 1920 and 1943, a short designation system akin to that of the United States Navy in use between the late 1920s and 1945, a system of popular names introduced to replace type numbers from 1943 through 1945.

Specification Shi numbers

Japanese Navy specifications from 1931 were given an experimental, or Shi (試) number, based on the year of the Emperor's reign the specification was issued in. Since multiple specifications could be issued in a year, the number was disambiguated with the aircraft purpose.

During the period this designation system was in use, the Emperor in question was Hirohito, the Showa Emperor, thus the years of Showa were those used, which began in 1926.

Thus, the Mitsubishi Zero was designed to meet the 1937 specification called 12-shi carrier fighter.

Long Type and Model Number system

After 1929, aircraft types were given a type number based on the last two digits of the Japanese imperial year (which is counted from the mythical founding of Japan in 660BC by Emperor Jimmu). Added to this was a brief description of the aircraft's function. +more The Mitsubishi Zero was so-called because entered service in 1940 which was the Japanese year 2600, thus it was designated Type 0 Carrier Fighter.

Model numbers were added to show subtypes. By the late 1930s these were two digits, the first being airframe revisions, the second engine revisions.

The system was abandoned in 1943, when it was decided that it gave away too much information about the aircraft.

Short system

In the late 1920s a short designation scheme was adopted, which was similar to the 1922 United States Navy aircraft designation system. This scheme used a letter or two letters to designate a type of aircraft, a number to indicate the Navy Design Request Number in that type of aircraft, and finally a letter to designate the manufacturer. +more Unlike the US Navy system, the Japanese system did not have a different number series for each manufacturer, and did not omit the number "1".

Thus, the Zero's type in this designation system was A6M, which meant the sixth type of carrier fighter under this designation system, and that it was built by Mitsubishi.

Variants were indicated by an additional number at the end; repurposing an aircraft was indicated by a dash and then the new type letter.

Sometimes two aircraft were ordered from different manufacturers to the same specification at the same time, generally as insurance against the primary design not working out. In this case, the same series number was used for both. +more Data from:Japanese Military Aircraft Designations

LetterCharactersWestern lettersType of Aircraft
A艦上戦闘機Kanjyo Sento-kiCarrier-based fighter
B艦上攻撃機Kanjyo Kougeki-kiCarrier-based attack bomber
C艦上偵察機Kanjyo Teisatsu-kiCarrier-based Reconnaissance
D艦 上爆撃機Kanjyo Bakugeki-kiCarrier-based dive bomber
E水上偵察機Suijyo Teisatsu-kiReconnaissance seaplane
F水上観測機Suijyo Kansoku-kiObservation seaplane
G陸上攻撃機Rikujo Kougeki-kiLand-based attack bomber
H飛行艇Hiko-teiFlying boat
J陸上戦闘機Rikujyo Sento-kiLand-based fighter
K練習機Renshuu-kiTrainer
L輸送機Yuso-kiTransport
M特殊機Tokushu-kiSpecial purpose
N水上戦闘機Suijyo Sento-kiFighter seaplane
P陸上爆撃機Rikujyo Bakugeki-kiLand-based bomber
Q哨戒機ShokaikiPatrol aircraft
R陸上偵察機Rikujyo Teisatsu-kiLand-based reconnaissance
S夜間戦闘機Yakan Sento-kiNight fighter
X実験Tokushu-ki (Jikken)Experiment (used with other designations)
|valign="top"| [wiki_table=fade30bf] |}.

Official names

After July 1943, names were given to Navy aircraft instead of type designations. These names were given according to a scheme based on the aircraft's role. +more These were official names, in contrast to Army aircraft whose names were popular nicknames.

* Fighters: Weather and meteorological names ** Carrier fighters and seaplane fighters: Wind names usually ending with pu or fu (風) ** Interceptors: Lightning names ending in den (電) ** Night fighters: Light names ending in ko (光) * Attack planes: Mountains names ending in zan (山) * Bombers: Star or constellation names usually ending in sei (星) * Patrol: Sea or ocean names ending in kai (海) or yo (洋) * Reconnaissance: Cloud names ending in un (雲) * Trainers: Trees, plants and flowers * Transports: Sky names ending in ku (空) * Miscellaneous: Landscape names * Purpose-built kamikaze aircraft: Flower names ending in ka (花)

Special cases include aircraft that employed non-conventional (i. e. +more non-propeller-driven) propulsion scheme like rocket-powered interceptor Shūsui (poetic term meaning "Sharp Sword") and aircraft used for non-conventional deployments such as Special Attacker Seiran ("Mountain Haze"; deployed from submarines to strike targets behind the frontline and expected to be ditched upon returning to motherships).

Imperial Japanese Army Air Service

The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service (often called the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force (大日本帝國陸軍航空隊、大日本帝國陸軍航空部隊) (IJAAS) used a straightforward system based on year of service and type, nearly identical to the Navy's long type and model number system. This system was used from 1927, replacing an earlier system in which a manufacturer type code from a Japanese Kanji ordinal from the Heavenly stems was assigned to the aircraft from each company, as well as a type number. +more With additional types being added, this system quickly became cumbersome. Assigned letters included 甲 (Ko) for Nieuport, 乙 (Otsu) for Salmson, 丙 (Hei) for SPAD, 丁 (Tei) for Farman, 戊 (Bo) for Caudron, and 己 (Ki) for Hanriot. The "Ki" (キ; abbreviation of kitai = airframe) designation was also used and became prominent in later years.

Long Type and Model Number system

The first part of the designation was a two-digit type number based on the Japanese year in which the aircraft entered service. A minor exception was the year 1940 (2600), for which the type number 100 rather than zero was used. +more This was followed by a description of the aircraft's function. If there were two or more aircraft with the same type and function, the latter was enhanced to further differentiate them. An example is the Type 2 single-seat fighter (the Nakajima Ki-44) and the Type 2 two-seat fighter (Kawasaki Ki-45).

Major modifications (such as a different engine) were indicated with a subtype number, officially in kanji but often in Roman numerals. Small-scale modifications (such as armament) are indicated with a Japanese Kanji ordinal from the Heavenly stems:- ko (甲), otsu (乙), hei (丙), tei (丁), bo (戊), ki (己), which equate to:- a (first), b (second), c (third), d (fourth), e (fifth), but are NOT direct translations. +more The character "kai"(改) was used if the modifications were large but not enough for a new type number.

Short designation ("Ki" number)

The "Ki" airframe designation indicates the project number (written in Arabic numerals), and was assigned in sequence to all projects regardless of manufacturer or type.

Popular names

Popular names such as "Hayabusa" (the Nakajima Ki-43) were not part of the official designation.

Calendars and Type numbers

Data from:

Type numbers were assigned by both the Army and Navy followed the Taisho number sequence, the number of years the Emperor Taisho had been on the throne until Emperor Showa replaced him on 25 December 1926, which started the Showa sequence, at which time, the numbering was matched to the last two, or later one digit of the Imperial Japanese calendar year. The Navy began assigning Shisaku numbers to denote experimental types being evaluated by the Navy, whose numbering matched those of the Showa sequence. +more As no new designs were assigned Type numbers between 26 December 1926 and the end of the year, no aircraft was designated Type 86 under the Showa sequence. The Taisho/Showa sequences were used for almost all equipment developed for both Army and Navy (including weapons, equipment, vehicles and even ships), so there can be many unrelated pieces of equipment covered under a single Type number.

YearJapanese YearNengo EraType numberShisaku number
19212581Taisho 10Type 10
19222582Taisho 11Type 11
19232583Taisho 12Type 12
19242584Taisho 13Type 13
19252585Taisho 14Type 14
19262586Taisho 15/Showa 1Type 15
19272587Showa 2Type 87
19282588Showa 3Type 88
19292589Showa 4Type 89
19302590Showa 5Type 90
19312591Showa 6Type 916-Shi
19322592Showa 7Type 927-Shi
19332593Showa 8Type 938-Shi
19342594Showa 9Type 949-Shi
19352595Showa 10Type 9510-Shi
19362596Showa 11Type 9611-Shi
19372597Showa 12Type 9712-Shi
19382598Showa 13Type 9813-Shi
19392599Showa 14Type 9914-Shi
19402600Showa 15Type 100 or 015-Shi
19412601Showa 16Type 116-Shi
19422602Showa 17Type 217-Shi
19432603Showa 18Type 318-Shi
19442604Showa 19Type 419-Shi
19452605Showa 20Type 520-Shi

Designation table

This is a sortable table giving all the various designations and names of Japanese Military aircraft from circa 1925 to 1945. Data from: and []

Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service aircraft designations

Short DesignationOfficial (long) Designation (All "types" are Navy)Experimental DesignationJapanese NameAllied Code Name(s)Notes
Nakajima A1NType 3 Carrier FighterBiplane
Nakajima A2NType 90 Carrier FighterBiplane
Nakajima A3NType 90 Training FighterBiplane
Nakajima A4NType 95 Carrier FighterBiplane
Mitsubishi A5MType 96 Carrier Fighter9-shi Carrier FighterCLAUDE/SANDY
Mitsubishi A5M4-KType 96 Training Fightertrainer variant
Watanabe A5M4-KType 2 Training Fighter15-shi Fighter-Trainertrainer variant
Mitsubishi A6MType 0 Carrier Fighter12-shi Carrier FighterReisen (Zero fighter)ZEKE/HAMP/HAPUnofficially Zero
Mitsubishi A6M2-K/A6M5-KTraining FighterZEKEUnofficially Zero
Nakajima A6M2-NType 2 Fighter Seaplane15-shi Fighter SeaplaneRUFE
Mitsubishi A7M17-shi Ko Type Carrier FighterReppu (Storm Wind)SAM
Mitsubishi A7M17-shi Otsu(B) Type Interceptor Fighter Reppu Kai
Heinkel A7HeType He Air Defence FighterJERRY
Seversky A8VType S Two-seat FighterDICK
Boeing AXBType B Carrier FighterOne tested
Canadian Car and Foundry AXGType G Carrier FighterOne tested
Dewoitine AXDType D Carrier FighterOne tested
Hawker AXHType H Carrier FighterOne tested
Heinkel AXHeType He Interceptor FighterThree tested
Vought AXVType V Interceptor FighterOne tested
Mitsubishi B1MType 13 Carrier Attack BomberBiplane
Mitsubishi B2MType 89 Carrier Attack BomberBiplane
Yokosuka B3YType 92 Carrier Attack BomberBiplane
Mitsubishi B4M9-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerBiplane
Nakajima B4N9-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerLost to B4Y1
Yokosuka B4YType 96 Carrier Attack Bomber9-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerJEAN
Mitsubishi B5MType 97-2 Carrier Attack Bomber10-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerMABEL
Nakajima B5NType 97-1 & 97-2 Carrier Attack Bomber10-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerKATE
Nakajima B5N1-KType 97 Model 1 Attacker-TrainerKATEB5N Trainer version
Nakajima B6NCarrier Attack Bomber Tenzan14-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerTenzan (Heavenly Mountain)JILL
Aichi B7ACarrier Attack Bomber Ryusei16-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerRyusei (Shooting Star)GRACE
Northrop BXN2 imported
Mitsubishi C1MType 10 Carrier Reconnaissance AircraftBiplane
n/aType 10 Carrier Torpedo BomberMitsubishi 1MTTriplane
Nakajima C2NFokker Reconnaissance Aircraftlicence-built
Nakajima C3NType 97 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft10-shi Carrier (Land) ReconnaissanceNot proceeded with
Aichi C4A13-shi High-speed Reconnaissance PlaneProject
Mitsubishi C5MType 98 Reconnaissance AircraftBABS
Nakajima C6NCarrier Reconnaissance Aircraft Saiun17-shi Carrier (Land) ReconnaissanceSaiun (Painted Cloud)MYRT
Nakajima C6N1-S2Night Fighter17-shi Carrier (Land) ReconnaissanceSaiun (Iridescent Cloud)MYRT
Potez CXP1One tested (diesel)
Aichi D1AType 94 Carrier Bomber8-shi Carrier Dive BomberSUSIE
Aichi D1A2Type 96 Carrier BomberSUSIE
Nakajima D2N8-shi Carrier BomberLost to D1A1
Yokosuka D2Y8-shi Carrier BomberLost to D1A1
Aichi D3AType 99 Carrier Bomber11-shi Carrier Dive BomberVAL
Mitsubishi D3M11-shi Carrier BomberLost to D3A1
Nakajima D3N11-shi Carrier BomberLost to D3A1
Yokosuka D3Y1-K/D3Y2-KTraining Bomber MyojoMyojo (Venus)
Yokosuka D4YCarrier Bomber Suisei17-shi Carrier Dive BomberSuisei (Comet)JUDY/DOT
Yokosuka D4Y1-C/D4Y2-CaType 2 Carrier Reconnaissance AircraftJUDY
Yokosuka D5YSpecial Attacker Myojo Kai
Douglas DXDType D Attack PlaneOne tested
Heinkel DXHeType He Attack PlaneOne tested
Yokosuka E1YType 14-1 Reconnaissance SeaplaneBiplane
Nakajima E2NType 15 Reconnaissance SeaplaneBiplane
Aichi E3AType 90-1 Reconnaissance SeaplaneBiplane
Nakajima E4NType 90-2 Reconnaissance SeaplaneBiplane
Nakajima E4N2-CType 90-2-3 Reconnaissance Aircraftlandplane E4N
Kawanishi E5KType 90-3 Reconnaissance SeaplaneBiplane
Yokosuka E5YType 14-2 Kai-1 Reconnaissance SeaplaneBiplane
Yokosuka E6YType 91 Reconnaissance SeaplaneBiplane
Kawanishi E7KType 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane7-shi Sea ReconnaissanceALF
Aichi E8A8-shi Reconnaissance SeaplaneLost to E8N1
Kawanishi E8K8-shi Reconnaissance SeaplaneLost to E8N1
Nakajima E8NType 95 Reconnaissance Seaplane8-shi Sea ReconnaissanceDAVE
Watanabe E9WType 96 Small Reconnaissance Seaplane9-shi Sea ReconnaissanceSLIMBiplane
Aichi E10AType 96 Night Reconnaissance Seaplane9-shi Sea ReconnaissanceHANKBiplane flying boat
Kawanishi E10KType 94 Transport Seaplane9-shi Sea ReconnaissanceBiplane flying boat
Aichi E11AType 98 Night Reconnaissance Seaplane11-shi Sea ReconnaissanceLAURA
Kawanishi E11KType 96 Transport Seaplane11-shi Sea ReconnaissanceLost to E11A1
Aichi E12A12-shi Two-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane
Kawanishi E12K12-shi Two-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane
Nakajima E12N12-shi Two-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane
Aichi E13AType 0 Reconnaissance Seaplane12-shi Sea ReconnaissanceJAKE
Kawanishi E13K12-shi Three-seat Reconnaissance SeaplaneLost to E13A
Watanabe E14W12-shi Small Reconnaissance Seaplane
Yokosuka E14YType 0 Small Reconnaissance Seaplane12-shi Sea ReconnaissanceGLEN
Kawanishi E15KType 2 High-speed Reconnaissance Seaplane Shiun14-shi Sea ReconnaissanceShiun (Purple Cloud)NORM
Aichi E16AReconnaissance Seaplane Zuiun16-shi Sea ReconnaissanceZuiun (Happy Cloud)PAUL
Aichi F1A10-shi Observation SeaplaneLost to F1M1
Kawanishi F1K10-shi Observation SeaplaneLost to F1M1
Mitsubishi F1MType 0 Observation Seaplane10-shi Sea ObservationPETE
Mitsubishi G1MType 93 Attack Bomber7-shi Land AttackerBiplane
Mitsubishi G1M8-shi Land AttackerLong Range Research, not 7-shi
Hiro G2HType 95 Attack Bomber7-shi Land AttackerMonoplane
Mitsubishi G3MType 96 Attack Bomber9-shi Land AttackerNELL
Mitsubishi G4MType 1 Attack Bomber12-shi Land AttackerBETTY
Nakajima G5N13-shi Attack Bomber ShinzanShinzan (Deep Mountain)LIZ
Mitsubishi G6MType 1 Wingtip Convoy FighterBETTY
Mitsubishi G6M1-KType 1 Large Land TrainerBETTY
Mitsubishi G6M1-L2Type 1 TransportBETTY
Mitsubishi G7M16-shi Attack Bomber TaizanTaizan (Great Mountain)Project
Nakajima G8N18-shi Attack Bomber RenzanRenzan (Mountain Chain)RITA
Kawanishi G9KProject
Nakajima G10NSuper Heavy Bomber FugakuFugaka (Mount Fuji)Project
Hiro H1HType 15 Flying boatBiplane
Hiro H2HType 89 Flying boatBiplane
Hiro H3HType 90-1 Flying boatMonoplane
Kawanishi H3KType 90-2 Flying boatBELLEBiplane
Hiro H4HType 91 Flying boatMonoplane
Yokosuka H5YType 99 Flying boat9-shi Flying BoatCHERRY
Kawanishi H6KType 97 Flying boat9-shi Flying BoatMAVIS
Kawanishi H6K2-L/H6K4-LType 97 Transport Flying boatMAVIS
Yokosuka H7Y12-shi Special Flying boatTILLIEProject
Kawanishi H8KType 2 Flying boat13-shi Flying BoatEMILY
Kawanishi H8K2-LKawanishi Navy Transport Flying boat SeikuSeiku (Sunny Sky)EMILY
Aichi H9AType 2 Training Flying boat13-shi Flying Boat
Hiro H10H14-shi Medium Flying boatProject
Kawanishi H11K1-LLarge-size Transport Flying boat SoukuuSoukuu (Blue Sky)Project
Consolidated HXCType C Flying boatOne tested
Douglas HXDType D Flying boatTwo tested
Potez HXP1One tested
Nakajima J1N13-shi Three-seat Fighter
Nakajima J1N1-C/J1N1-RType 2 Reconnaissance Aircraft13-shi Land ReconnaissanceIRVING
Nakajima J1N1-SNight Fighter Gekko13-shi Night FighterGekko (Moonlight)IRVING
Mitsubishi J2MLand Fighter Raiden14-shi InterceptorRaiden (Thunderbolt)JACK
Kawanishi J3K17-shi Otsu (B) Type Interceptor Fighter
Mitsubishi J4M17-shi Otsu (B) Type Interceptor Fighter SendenSenden (Flashing Lightning)LUKE
Nakajima J5N18-shi Otsu (B) Type Interceptor Fighter TenraiTenrai (Heavenly Thunder)
Kawanishi J6K18-shi Otsu (B) Type Interceptor Fighter JinpuJinpu (Squall)
Kyushu J7W18-shi Otsu (B) Type Interceptor Fighter ShindenShinden (Resounding Lightning)
Mitsubishi J8M19-shi Rocket-Powered Interceptor Fighter ShusuiShusui (Sharp Sword)
Nakajima KikkaSpecial Attacker Kikka/Imperial Weapon No. 2Kikka (Orange Blossom)First Japanese jet aircraft
Yokosuka K1YType 13 Training SeaplaneBiplane
Yokosuka K2YType 3 Primary Trainer
Mitsubishi K3MType 90 Operations TrainerPINE
Yokosuka K4YType 90 Training Seaplane
Yokosuka K5YType 93 Advanced TrainerWILLOW
Kawanishi K6K11-shi Advanced Trainer SeaplaneCancelled
Mitsubishi K6M11-shi Advanced Trainer SeaplaneCancelled
Watanabe K6W11-shi Advanced Trainer SeaplaneCancelled
Mitsubishi K7M11-shi Crew TrainerCancelled
Kawanishi K8KType 0 Primary Trainer Seaplane12-shi Primary Trainer SeaplaneBiplane
Nihon K8P12-shi Primary Trainer SeaplaneCancelled
Watanabe K8W12-shi Primary Trainer SeaplaneCancelled
Kyushu K9WType 2 Primary Trainer Momiji14-shi TrainerKouyou (Red Leaf)CYPRESS
Kyushu K10WType 2 Intermediate Trainer14-shi Land Middle TrainerOAK
Kyushu K11WOperations Trainer Shiragiku15-shi TrainerShiragiku (White Chrysanthemum)
North American KXAType A Intermediate TrainerTwo tested
Bücker KXBuType Bu Primary TrainerBücker Bü 131
+more600_Aiglon'>Caudron KXCType C TrainerOne tested
Heinkel KXHeType He TrainerOne tested
Junkers KXJType J TrainerOne tested
Lockheed KXLType L TrainerOne tested
Nakajima L1NType 97 TransportTHORANaval version of Ki-34
Showa/Nakajima L2DType D Transport & Type 0 TransportTABBYlicence-built Douglas DC-3
Yokosuka L3YType 96 TransportTINAConverted G3M
Mitsubishi L4MArmy Type 100 TransportTOPSYNaval version of Ki-57-I
L5?Unidentified transportNo details
L6?Unidentified transportNo details
Nihon L7P13-shi Small Amphibious TransportCancelled
Curtiss-Wright LXCType C Amphibious TransportOne tested
Douglas LXDType D TransportOne tested
Fairchild LXFType F Amphibious TransportOne tested.
Gasuden LXGSpecial Liaison TransportKR-2 for VIP use.
Grumman LXGGrumman Amphibian Flying BoatOne Grumman Goose tested
Heinkel LXHeType He TransportOne tested.
Kinner LXKType K TransportOne tested.
Airspeed LXMType M TransportTwo tested.
Aichi M6ASpecial Attack Bomber Seiran]17-shi special AttackerSeiran (Mountain Haze)
Aichi M6A1-KSpecial Attack Training Bomber NanzanNanzan (South Mountain)
Nihon MXJ1Primary Training Glider Wakakusa17-shi Exp. Research PlaneWakakusa (Young Grass)
Yokosuka MXY1Test AircraftMXY1Research
Yokosuka MXY2Test AircraftMXY2Research
Yokosuka MXY3Target GliderMXY3Target drone
Yokosuka MXY4Yokosuka Navy Type 1 Target AircraftMXY4Target drone
Yokosuka MXY5Transport GliderMXY5
Yokosuka MXY6Ente-type GliderMXY6unpowered glider for J7W development
Yokosuka MXY7 OhkaSpecial Attack Aircraft OhkaMXY7Ohka (Cherry Blossom)BAKA
Yokosuka MXY8Training Glider AkigusaMXY8Akigusa (Autumn Grass)
Yokosuka MXY9Trainer ShukaMXY9Shuka (Autumn fire)Glider
Yokosuka MXY10Bomber Ginga Ground DecoyMXY10for P1Y
Yokosuka MXY11Type 1 Attack Bomber Ground DecoyMXY11for G4M
Mizuno MXZ117-shi Exp. Research PlaneTraining glider
Kawanishi N1KFighter Seaplane Kyofu15-shi Fighter SeaplaneKyofu (Gale)REX
Kawanishi N1K1-JLand Fighter ShidenShiden (Violet Lightning)GEORGELandplane Kyofu
Kawanishi N1K2-J/N1K5-JLand Fighter Shiden KaiShiden (Violet Lightning) modifiedGEORGELandplane
Kawanishi N1K2-KTraining Fighter Shiden Kai RensenShiden (Violet Lightning) modifiedGEORGELandplane
Yokosuka P1YBomber Ginga15-shi Land BomberGinga (Galaxy)FRANCES
Yokosuka P1Y1-SNight Fighter Hakko15-shi Night FighterHakko (White light/Corona)
Yokosuka P1Y2-SNight Fighter Kyokko15-shi Night FighterKyokko (Aurora)
Kyushu Q1WPatrol Plane Tokai17-shi PatrolTokai (Eastern Sea)LORNA
Mitsubishi Q2M19-shi Patrol Plane TaiyoTaiyo (Ocean)Project
Kyushu Q3WPatrol Plane NankaiNankai (Southern Sea)
Yokosuka R1Yn/a17-shi Reconnaissance Plane SeiunSeiun (Dawn Cloud)
Yokosuka R2Yn/a18-shi Reconnaissance Plane KeiunKeiun (Cirrus Cloud)
Aichi S1An/a18-shi Hei C Type Night Fighter DenkoDenko (Lightning Bolt)
n/aYasukuni (Shrine)Ki-67-I loaned from Army
n/an/a6-shi Carrier FighterNakajima
n/an/a7-shi Carrier FighterMitsubishi 1MF10
n/an/a7-shi Carrier FighterNakajima Army Type 91 Fighterfor Navy
n/an/a8-shi Carrier FighterMitsubishi Ka-8Crashed
n/an/a8-shi Carrier FighterNakajima, Cancelled
n/an/a9-shi Carrier FighterIJA Nakajima Ki-11
n/an/a7-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerAichi Biplane
n/an/a7-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerMitsubishi Biplane
n/an/a7-shi Carrier Torpedo AttackerNakajima Biplane
n/an/a6-shi Carrier Dive BomberNakajima, Crashed
n/an/a7-shi Carrier Dive BomberNakajima
n/an/a6-shi Night Reconnaissance Flying BoatAichi (flying boat biplane)
n/an/a7-shi Reconnaissance Seaplane]]Aichi, lost to E7K
n/aSpecial AttackSukukaze (Cool Breeze)OMARFictional
n/aSpecial Attack Glider ShinryuShinryu (Divine Dragon)Mizuno project
n/aExperimental Special Attacker 1Toka (Wisteria flower)Navy Nakajima Ki-115
n/aExperimental Attack Plane 1Tozan (Eastern Mountain)
n/aType 97 Reconnaissance Seaplane?BOBAichi
n/aType 98 Bomber Float Plane?IONEAichi
n/aType 99 Four-Engine Flying Boat?JOANUnknown company
n/aType 99 Single-Engine Dive Bomber Seaplane?Aichi
n/aType 1 Single-Seat Fighter?ZEKEMitsubishi
n/aType 96 Carrier Fighter?SANDYMitsubishi
n/aType 97 Seaplane FighterADAMNakajima, Fictional
n/aType 1 Dive Bomber?DOTNakajima
Nakajima E7KType 97 Seaplane FighterADAM
Kayaba Ka-1Ka-Gō Artillery spotterArmy autogyro
n/aType 99 Flying BoatJOANUnknown company
n/aType T. K. 19 FighterJOEFictional
n/aType 99 Dive Bomber SeaplaneJUNEfloatplane D3A
Nagoya Sento-ki 001Sento-ki 001 Carrier FighterJUNEfictional
Kayaba Ka-2Army autogyro
.

Imperial Japanese Army Air Service aircraft designations

Ki(キ)/Ku(ク) numberManufacturerOfficial Designation or (Role)Japanese Popular NameAllied Code Name(s)Notes
Ka-goKayabaKa-go Observer (autogyro)
Ki-1MitsubishiType 93 Heavy BomberMonoplane
Ki-2MitsubishiType 93-2 Twin-Engine Light BomberLOUISEMonoplane
Ki-3KawasakiType 93 Single-Engine Light BomberBiplane
Ki-4NakajimaType 94 ReconnaissanceBiplane
Ki-5Kawasaki(Fighter)Monoplane
Ki-6NakajimaType 95 Model 2 TrainerHigh-wing Monoplane
Ki-7Mitsubishi(Operations Trainer)Lost to Ki-6
Ki-8Nakajima(Fighter)Inverted gull-wing
Ki-9TachikawaType 95 Model 1 TrainerChurenSPRUCE
Ki-10KawasakiType 95 FighterPERRYLast IJA fighter biplane
Ki-11Nakajima(Fighter)Lost to Ki-10
Ki-12Nakajima(Fighter)
Ki-13Nakajima(Attacker)Cancelled
Ki-14Mitsubishi(Reconnaissance)Cancelled
Ki-15MitsubishiType 97 Headquarter ReconnaissanceKarigane - Wild GooseBABSAlso Navy C5M
Ki-16Nakajima(Fuel Transport)Douglas DC-2 variant
Ki-17TachikawaType 95 Model 3 TrainerShoren - Primary TrainerCEDAR
Ki-18Mitsubishi(Fighter)Army A5M variant
Ki-19Nakajima(Heavy Bomber)Lost to Mitsubishi Ki-19
Ki-19Mitsubishi(Heavy Bomber)Renamed to Ki-21
Ki-20MitsubishiType 92 Heavy BomberJunkers G-38 variant
Ki-21MitsubishiType 97 Heavy BomberSALLY/GWEN/JANE
Ki-22Kawasaki(Heavy bomber)Cancelled
Ki-23Fukuda(Training glider)
Ki-24Tachikawa(Primary training glider)DFS SG 38 Schulgleiter built under license
Ki-25Tachikawa(Training glider)
Ki-26Tachikawa(Glider)
Ki-27NakajimaType 97 FighterNATE/CLINT
Ki-28Kawasaki(Fighter)Lost to Ki-27
Ki-29Tachikawa(Light Bomber)Cancelled
Ki-30MitsubishiType 97 Light BomberANNLost to Ki-32
Ki-31Nakajima(Light Bomber)Cancelled, lost to Ki-28 & Ki-30.
Ki-32KawasakiType 98 Light BomberMARYLost to Ki-30
Ki-33Mitsubishi(Fighter)Navy A5M variant lost to Ki-27
Ki-34NakajimaType 97 TransportTHORACommercial AT-2
Ki-35Mitsubishi(Reconnaissance)Cancelled
Ki-36TachikawaType 98 Co-operation ReconnaissanceIDAFixed undercarriage
Ki-37Nakajima(Fighter)Cancelled
Ki-38Kawasaki(Fighter)Became Ki-45
Ki-39Mitsubishi(Fighter)Cancelled
Ki-40Mitsubishi(HQ Reconnaissance)Cancelled
Ki-41Nakajima(Transport)Cancelled
Ki-42Mitsubishi(Heavy Bomber)Cancelled
Ki-43NakajimaType 1 FighterHayabusa (Peregrine Falcon)OSCAR
Ki-44NakajimaType 2 Single-seat FighterShoki (Demon)TOJO/JOHN
Ki-45Kawasaki(Fighter)Cancelled
Ki-45 KaiKawasakiType 2 Two-seat FighterToryu (Dragon Slayer)NICK
Ki-46MitsubishiType 100 HQ ReconnaissanceDINAH
Ki-47Mitsubishi(Light Bomber)Cancelled
Ki-48KawasakiType 99 Twin-engine Light BomberLILY
Ki-49NakajimaType 100 Heavy BomberDonryu (Storm Dragon)HELEN
Ki-50Mitsubishi(Heavy Bomber)Cancelled
Ki-51MitsubishiType 99 Attacker/Army ReconnaissanceSONIA
Ki-52Nakajima(Dive Bomber)Cancelled
Ki-53Nakajima(Fighter)Project
Ki-54aTachikawaType 1 Twin-engine Advanced TrainerHICKORY
Ki-54bTachikawaType 1 Operations TrainerHICKORY
Ki-54cTachikawaType 1 TransportHICKORY
Ki-55TachikawaType 99 Advanced TrainerIDAKi-36 variant
Ki-56KawasakiType 1 Cargo TransportTHALIAType LO/RO variant
Ki-57MitsubishiType 100 TransportTOPSYNavy L4M
Ki-58Nakajima(Escort fighter)Ki-49 variant
Ki-59KokusaiType 1 TransportTHERESACommercial TK-3
Ki-60Kawasaki(Fighter)used inline engine
Ki-61KawasakiType 3 FighterHien (Flying Swallow)TONY
Ki-62Nakajima(Fighter)Cancelled
Ki-63Nakajima(Fighter)Cancelled; variant of Ki-62 with radial engine
Ki-64Kawasaki(Fighter)ROBBuried engines
Ki-65Mitsubishi(Attacker)Ki-51 successor project
Ki-65Manshu(Heavy Fighter)project
Ki-66Kawasaki(Dive Bomber)Cancelled
Ki-67MitsubishiType 4 Heavy BomberHiryū (Flying Dragon)PEGGYAlso interceptor. +more
Ki-68Nakajima(Long-range Bomber)Army bomber version of naval G5N, project
Ki-69Mitsubishi(Escort fighter)Ki-67 project
Ki-70Tachikawa(HQ Reconnaissance)CLARACancelled
Ki-71Manshu(Attacker)EDNAKi-51 variant
Ki-72Tachikawa(Reconnaissance)Ki-36 variant project
Ki-73Mitsubishi(Fighter)STEVECancelled
Ki-74Tachikawa(Reconnaissance Bomber)PAT/PATSY
Ki-75Nakajima(Fighter)Cancelled
Ki-76KokusaiType 3 Command LiaisonSTELLAAlso used for ASW
Ki-77TachikawaLong-range experimental
Ki-78KawasakiHigh-speed ExperimentalKen-3
Ki-79ManshuType 2 Advanced TrainerKi-27 variant
Ki-80Nakajima(Formation Commander)Ki-49 variant
Ki-81Kawasaki(Formation Commander)Ki-48 variant project
Ki-82Nakajima(Heavy Bomber)Cancelled
Ki-83Mitsubishi(Long-range Fighter)
Ki-84NakajimaType 4 FighterHayate (Gale)FRANK
Ki-85Kawasaki(Bomber)Army bomber version of naval G5N, project
Ki-86KokusaiType 4 Basic TrainerCYPRESSBücker Bü 131 built under license
Ki-87Nakajima(High-altitude Fighter)
Ki-88Kawasaki(Fighter)Pusher
Ki-89Kawasaki(Experimental)Cancelled
Ki-90Mitsubishi(Long-range Bomber)project
Ki-91Kawasaki(Long-range Bomber)Cancelled
Ki-92Tachikawa(Transport)
Ki-93Rikugun(Attacker)57 mm gun
Ki-94Tachikawa(High-altitude Fighter)
Ki-95Mitsubishi(HQ Reconnaissance)Ki-83 variant
Ki-96Kawasaki(Fighter)
Ki-97Mitsubishi(Transport)Ki-67 Transport
Ki-98Manshu(Fighter)
Ki-99Mitsubishi(Fighter)Cancelled
Ki-100KawasakiType 5 FighterKi-61 variant
Ki-101Nakajima(Night Fighter)PERRY
Ki-102KawasakiType 4 Assault AircraftRANDY
Ki-103Mitsubishi(Attacker)Ki-83 variant
Ki-104Rikugun(Fighter)
Ki-105Kokusai(Transport)BUZZARDPowered Ku-7
Ki-106Tachikawa(Fighter)FRANKWood Ki-84
Ki-107Tokyo(Primary Trainer)Wood
Ki-108Kawasaki(High-altitude Fighter)pressurized cockpit
Ki-109MitsubishiExperimental heavy fighterPEGGYKi-67 with 75mm gun
Ki-110Tachikawa(Transport)Wood Ki-54
Ki-111Tachikawa(Fuel tanker)Cancelled
Ki-112Mitsubishi(Heavy Bomber)Wood Ki-67
Ki-113Nakajima(Fighter)Steel Ki-84
Ki-114Tachikawa(Fuel tanker)Cancelled
Ki-115Nakajima(Special Attacker)Tsurugi - Sabre
Ki-116Manshu(Fighter)Re-engined Ki-84
Ki-117Nakajima(Fighter)Designation for Ki-84N
Ki-118Mitsubishi(Fighter)Cancelled
Ki-119Kawasaki(Dive-bomber/torpedo fighter)
Ki-147Kawasaki(Radio-guided air to surface missile)
Ki-148KawasakiIgo-1-B (Guided Bomb)launched from Ki-48
Ki-167MitsubishiSpecial AttackSakura-dan (Cherry Blossom)Kamikaze Ki-67
Ki-174KawasakiSpecial AttackSingle-seat Ki-48 project
Ki-200Mitsubishiexperimental rocket interceptorShusui (Sharp Sword)Navy J8M1
Ki-201Nakajima(Fighter-Bomber)Karyu (Fire Dragon)Project
Ki-202Rikugun(Interceptor)Shusui-kai (Sharp Sword-Improved)Advanced Ki-200
Ki-230NakajimaSpecial AttackKi-115 project
Ku-1MaedaMaeda Army Type 2 Small GliderTowed by Ki-51
Ku-2Tokyo University(Tailless Research)
Ku-3Tokyo University(Tailless Research)
Ku-4Tokyo University(Research)Powered Ku-2 project
Ku-5Fukuda(Trainer)research aircraft
Ku-6Maeda(Gliding Tank)Cancelled
Ku-7KokusaiExperimental Transport GliderManazuru (True Crane)BUZZARDBecame Ki-105
Ku-8KokusaiType 4 Special TransportGOOSETowed by Ki-21
Ku-8KokusaiType 4 Special TransportGANDERTowed by Ki-21
Ku-9Fukuda(Transport)Cancelled
Ku-10Maeda(Special Glider Trainer)
Ku-11Nihon(Transport)Wood
Ku-12Fukuda(Glider Trainer)
n/aRikugunTa-go Special AttackerTakeyari (Bamboo-spear)
n/aKobeTe-go ObserverLost to Ka-go
Ka 87KawasakiType 87 Heavy BomberDornier Do N
n/aMitsubishiType 87 Light BomberIJN Type 13 Carrier Attacker for Army
n/aKawasakiType 88 Light BomberType 88 Recon. variant
n/aKawasakiType 88 Reconnaissance Aircraft
n/aNakajimaType 91 Fighter
n/aKawasakiType 92 Fighter
n/aMitsubishiType 92 Reconnaissance2MR8
n/aFiatType I Heavy BomberRUTH
n/aLockheedType LO TransportTHELMA/TOBY
n/aVulteeType 98 Showa Light BomberMILLIE
n/aHeinkelType 98 Medium BomberBESS
n/aFocke-Wulf(Technology demonstrator)FRED
n/aFocke-Wulf(Technology demonstrator)TRUDY
n/aJunkers(Technology demonstrator)IRENE
n/aJunkers(Technology demonstrator)JANICE
n/aJunkers(Technology demonstrator)TRIXIE
n/aMesserschmitt(Technology demonstrator)DOC
n/aMesserschmitt(Technology demonstrator)TRIXIE
n/aNakajimaType 97 Fighter?CLINT
n/aNakajimaType 1 Light Bomber?JOYCE
n/aKawasakiType 1 Single-Seat Fighter?JIM
n/aKawasakiType 97 Medium Bomber?JULIA
n/aMitsubishiMitsubishi Navy Type 97 FighterABDULFictional A5M variant
n/aMitsubishiType 97 Light Bomber Darai 108NORMABennett BTC-1
n/aMitsubishiType 0 Single-Seat Twin-Engine FighterFRANK/HARRY
n/aMitsubishiType 0 Medium Bomber?GWEN
n/aMedium BomberMAISIE
n/aNakajimaNakajima/Douglas DC-2 transportTESSImported DC-2
n/aNakajimaType AT-27 twin-engine fighterGUSfictional aircraft from magazine
n/aMitsubishiOhtoriOhtori (Phoenix)EVECivilian Mitsubishi Ki-2-ii
n/aKawanishiSpecial Attack Aircraft BaikaBaika (Japanese Apricot Blossom)project
.

Notes